Archive for August, 2013

Professor Daniel Goldhagen

Posted: August 29, 2013 in Uncategorized


At this link one can read a highly detailed account of Daniel Goldhagen’s research into German anti-Semitism presented by Professor Goldhagen at the United States Holocaust Museum.


Kristallnacht Resources

Posted: August 28, 2013 in Uncategorized

Putting the Pieces Back Together

The Kristallnacht Project

from the Gary Rosenthal Collection






Source: Jewish Virtual Library



Source: Wikipedia



For additional information and documents, click on these sources:



Moving Images & Photographs of Kristallnacht


Moving Images:


There are very few moving images of Kristallnacht available in the public domain; many films are controlled by institutions in Germany and elsewhere and are not available publicly.  Therefore, most of the images available are photographs.  However, click below for moving images that appear in the public domain:


From YouTube:


Synagogue burning in Buehl, Germany:





There are many Web sites that contain photographs of Kristallnacht; many of them are in the public domain and may be down-loaded.  Among these collections (some images appear in more than one collection) are:


US Holocaust Memorial Museum Web site; 22 photos with captions:



Jewish Virtual Library; photos with captions: contains 90 images, with captions:




Survivor and Witness Testimony About Kristallnacht


To view the testimony of Holocaust survivors and other witnesses of Kristallnacht, visit these sites:


The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum:




USC Shoah Foundation (formerly known as the Steven Spielberg Survivors of the Shoah Foundation):


Yad Vashem:


Simon Wiesenthal Museum of Tolerance on-line learning center:




More Information About Kristallnacht


For more information about Kristallnacht, visit these Web sites:


United States Holocaust Memorial Museum:


Yad Vashem:



Bibliography on Kristallnacht

Source: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum


Primary Sources

  • Berenbaum, Michael, editor. “The November Pogroms: Kristallnacht and Its Aftermath.” In Witness to the Holocaust, 40-68. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1997. (D 804.19 .W58 1997) [Find in a library near you]
    Collects six translated original documents concerning Kristallnacht, including telegrams, personal accounts, and Nazi memos and reports.
  • Hill, Jeff, compiler. “Kristallnacht.” In The Holocaust, 109-123. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, 2006. (D 804.19 .H55 2006) [Find in a library near you]
    Collects seven primary sources, in translation, related to the events of November 9-10, 1938. Includes the text of police decrees, personal accounts, and Nazi memoranda. Part of the Primary Sourcebook series.
  • Mendelsohn, John, compiler. “The Crystal Night Pogrom.” Volume 3 of The Holocaust: Selected Documents in Eighteen Volumes. New York: Garland, 1982. (Reference D 810 .J4 H645 1982 v.3) [Find in a library near you]
    Reproduces 48 original primary sources related to the forced expulsion of Polish Jews from Germany in 1938 and Kristallnacht, with English translations. Includes telegrams, letters, interview notes, memoranda, and official police reports regarding the destruction across Germany and Austria.

Background Information

  • Friedländer, Saul. Nazi Germany and the Jews: Volume 1: The Years of Persecution, 1933-1939. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. (DS 135 .G3315 F75 1997 v.1) [Find in a library near you]
    Traces the development of Nazi antisemitic policies throughout the 1930s and the implications of these actions on the lives of German and Austrian Jews. Includes endnotes, an extensive bibliography, and an index.
  • Graml, Hermann. Antisemitism in the Third Reich. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992. (DS 135 .G3315 G73 1992) [Find in a library near you]
    Opens with a detailed account of Kristallnacht, and then traces the history of antisemitism in Germany to delineate the precise origins of the eliminationist anti-Jewish attitudes that led to Kristallnacht and the Holocaust. Includes an appendix with translations of key original documents along with a bibliographic essay outlining the historiography of the subject.
  • Kaplan, Marion A. Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. (DS 135 .G3315 K37 1998) [Find in a library near you]
    Chronicles Jewish daily life in Nazi Germany in the years leading up to Kristallnacht and the Holocaust. Provides insight into the effects of Nazism on German Jews and details the shift in attitudes among Jews after the events of November 1938. Includes endnotes, a bibliography, and an index.
  • Kershaw, Ian. Popular Opinion and Political Dissent in the Third Reich: Bavaria 1933-1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. (HN 460 .P8 K47 2002) [Find in a library near you]
    Provides an overview of popular responses to Nazi ideology by exploring everyday life for residents in one region of Germany. Traces the reactions of “ordinary Germans” to the increasing persecution of Jews, through the study of reports, testimonies, and newspaper accounts of the Kristallnacht pogrom (see pp. 257-277). Includes extensive footnotes documenting the sources used.
  • Limberg, Margarete, and Hubert Rübsaat, editors. Germans No More: Accounts of Jewish Everyday Life, 1933-1938. New York: Berghahn Books, 2006. (DS 135 .G3315 S5413 2006) [Find in a library near you]
    Presents first-hand accounts of daily life in Nazi Germany, including the effects of Kristallnacht on Jews who were targeted by local officials across Germany. Includes brief biographical information for each contributor.
  • Schleunes, Karl A. The Twisted Road to Auschwitz: Nazi Policy Toward German Jews, 1933-1939. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990. (DS 135 .G33 S29 1990) [Find in a library near you]
    Traces the evolution of anti-Jewish legislation and sentiment throughout the 1930s and the erosion of Jewish culture and status in Nazi Germany in the years leading up to World War II. Includes a detailed analysis of the year 1938–and Kristallnacht in particular–as a turning point in the history of the Third Reich. Includes an extensive bibliography, an updated bibliographic essay written by the author for the second edition, and an index.
  • Tenenbaum, Joseph. “The Crucial Year 1938.” Yad Vashem Studies 2 (1958): 49-77. (DS 135 .E83 Y3 v.2) [Find in a library near you]
    Traces the political maneuverings between the Reich Foreign Ministry and several European countries attempting to resolve the “Jewish question” in Germany through emigration. Argues that the failure of other countries to resolve immigration issues, most notably at the Evian Conference, emboldened Nazi Germany into forcibly expelling foreign Jews in 1938 and, ultimately, to the violence of Kristallnacht and the Holocaust.

Herschel Grynszpan

  • Marino, Andy. Herschel: The Boy Who Started World War II. Boston: Faber and Faber, 1997. (DS 135 .G3315 M38 1997) [Find in a library near you]
    Biography of Herschel Grynszpan that provides a detailed account of the assassination of Ernst vom Rath. Attempts to untangle questions concerning Grynszpan’s possible relationship with vom Rath prior to the shooting.
  • Marrus, Michael. “The Strange Story of Herschel Grynszpan.” In The Origins of the Holocaust, 597-607. Westport, CT: Meckler, 1989. (Reference D 810.J4 N38 1989 v.2) [Find in a library near you]
    Summarizes the life of Herschel Grynszpan, his assassination of Ernst vom Rath, and his fate at the hands of French and German officers after the shooting.
  • Roizen, Ron. “Herschel Grynszpan: The Fate of a Forgotten Assassin.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 1, no. 2 (1986): 217-228. (D 810 .J4 H6428 v.1) [Find in a library near you]
    Survey of the available sources on Herschel Grynszpan, specifically those that contend he survived the war and settled in Paris. Reflects on the meaning of Grynszpan’s actions in the overall context of Holocaust history.
  • Schwab, Gerald. The Day the Holocaust Began: The Odyssey of Herschel Grynszpan. New York: Praeger, 1990. (DS 135 .G3315 S37 1990) [Find in a library near you]
    Detailed account of the assassination of vom Rath and the treatment of his killer by French and German officials. Presents the arguments that prosecution and defense lawyers planned to present at Grynszpan’s trial, which was never held. Includes photographs, an extensive bibliography, an appendix listing key individuals mentioned in the text, and an index.

Historical Accounts

  • Ball-Kaduri, K.Y. “The Central Jewish Organizations in Berlin During the Pogrom of November 1938 (‘Kristallnacht’).” Yad Vashem Studies 3 (1959): 261-281. (DS 135 .E83 Y3 v.3) [Find in a library near you]
    Provides translated reports of seven officials from Jewish organizations in Berlin describing their responses to Kristallnacht. Based on archival collections at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem.
  • Benz, Wolfgang. “The November Pogrom of 1938: Participation, Applause, Disapproval.” In Exclusionary Violence: Antisemitic Riots in Modern German History, edited by Christhard Hoffmann, Werner Bergmann, and Helmut Walser Smith, 141-159. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002. (DS 146 .G4 E93 2002) [Find in a library near you]
    Traces the involvement of “ordinary citizens”–as opposed to Nazi party officials–in the Kristallnacht pogrom, providing an overview of how the riots developed in urban and rural areas throughout Germany. Argues that the “silent majority” of Germans did not necessarily approve of the violence but did not voice their concerns.
  • Gehler, Michael. “Murder on Command: The Anti-Jewish Pogrom in Innsbruck, 9th-10th November 1938.” Leo Baeck Institute Year Book 38 (1993): 119-153. (DS 135 .G3 A262 v.38) [Find in a library near you]
    Details the particularly brutal nature of Kristallnacht in Innsbruck, Austria, in which three Jews were murdered and several others severely injured.
  • Gilbert, Martin. Kristallnacht: Prelude to Destruction. New York: HarperCollins, 2006. (DS 135 .G3315 G55 2006) [Find in a library near you]
    Thorough account of the events of November 10, 1938, with emphasis on the experiences of those targeted by Nazi mobs. Based primarily on eyewitness accounts. Includes numerous photographs and maps as well as a bibliography and index.
  • Hamburger, Arno. “The Night of the Pogrom of November 9-10, 1938 in Nuremberg.” In The German Public and the Persecution of Jews, 1933-1945: “No One Participated, No One Knew,” edited by Jörg Wollenberg, 11-14. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1995. (DS 135 .G3315 N5313 1995) [Find in a library near you]
    First-hand account written by a survivor who was a 15-year-old resident of Nuremberg at the time.
  • Herz, Yitzhak S. “Kristallnacht at the Dinslaken Orphanage; Reminiscences.” Yad Vashem Studies 11 (1976): 344-368. (DS 135 .E83 Y3 v.11) [Find in a library near you]
    Detailed, first-person account written by a resident of Dinslaken, Germany, that describes not only Kristallnacht but also the ensuing restrictions on the lives of Jews in the town.
  • Kley, Stefan. “Hitler and the Pogrom of November 9-10, 1938.” Yad Vashem Studies 28 (2000): 87-112. (DS 135 .E83 Y3 v.28) [Find in a library near you]
    Outlines the decision-making process among Nazi officials that led to the events of November, 1938, emphasizing how Hitler’s personal actions and ideology influenced actions of the time.
  • Kochan, Lionel. Pogrom, 10 November 1938. London: A. Deutsch, 1957. (DS 135 .G3315 K635 1957) [Find in a library near you]
    History of Kristallnacht, including a discussion of the aftermath of the riots and an overview of worldwide public reaction. Includes a brief bibliography and an index.
  • Loewenberg, Peter. “The Kristallnacht as a Public Degradation Ritual.” Leo Baeck Institute Year Book 32 (1987): 309-323. (DS 135 .G3 A262 v.32) [Find in a library near you]
    Examines Kristallnacht as an act of “public humiliation” designed to transform German Jews into outcasts from society. This essay also appears in The Origins of the Holocaust, edited by Michael Marrus, p. 582-596. Westport, CT: Meckler, 1989 (Reference D 810.J4 N38 1989 v.2).
  • Pehle, Walter H., editor. November 1938: From “Reichskristallnacht” To Genocide. New York: Berg, 1991. (DS 135 .G3315 J8313 1991) [Find in a library near you]
    Collection of essays from various scholars exploring the origins of Kristallnacht and its aftereffects on the Jews of Germany. Places the event in the overall context of the history of the Third Reich and the Holocaust.
  • Read, Anthony, and David Fisher. Kristallnacht: The Nazi Night of Terror. New York: Times Books, 1989. (DS 135 .G3315 R426 1989) [Find in a library near you]
    Comprehensive, journalistic account of the events leading up to and during Kristallnacht. Discusses the worldwide reaction to the events of that night, as well as a discussion of the fate of Herschel Grynszpan. Includes a bibliography, photographs, and an index.
  • Thalmann, Rita, and Emmanuel Feinermann. Crystal Night: 9-10 November 1938. New York: Holocaust Library, 1974. (DS 135.G33 T4313 1974) [Find in a library near you]
    Thorough account of the events and aftermath of Kristallnacht, including its effects on the daily lives of Jews in Germany. Includes a discussion of worldwide public reaction to the violence and an investigation into the fate of Herschel Grynszpan.

Aftermath and Reactions

  • Bajohr, Frank. “Selling Off and Liquidating Enterprises and the Race for Personal Enrichment: ‘De-Judaisation’ and ‘Aryanisation’ from November 1938.” In “Aryanisation” in Hamburg: The Economic Exclusion of Jews and the Confiscation of Their Property in Nazi Germany, 222-261. New York: Berghahn Books, 2002. (DS 135 .G4 H3274 2002) [Find in a library near you]
    Provides a case study of how Nazi seizures of Jewish property and businesses, especially in the wake of Kristallnacht, transpired in Hamburg, Germany. Details the effects of Nazi discrimination on Jewish business owners and residents in Hamburg, and of the ensuing efforts to exclude Jews from the local economy.
  • Bauer, Yehuda. “The Kristallnacht as Turning Point: Jewish Reactions to Nazi Policies.” In The Origins of the Holocaust, edited by Michael Marrus, 553-569. Westport, CT: Meckler, 1989. (Reference D 810.J4 N38 1989 v.2) [Find in a library near you]
    Reflects upon the meaning of Kristallnacht as marking a significant shift in the way Jews viewed the antisemitic policies and actions of Nazi Germany, and on the implications of this shift on the overall view of Jews in European history.
  • Gottschalk, Alfred. The German Pogrom of November 1938 and the Reaction of American Jewry. New York: Leo Baeck Institute, 1988. (DS 135 .G3315 G67 1988) [Find in a library near you]
    Presents the text of the author’s 1988 Leo Baeck Memorial Lecture, in which he outlines the general reaction of American Jews–and the responses of prominent community leaders–to news of Kristallnacht.
  • Hilberg, Raul. “Kristallnacht, Germany, and German Jews: An Interview with Raul Hilberg.” Dimensions 4, no. 2 (1988): 11-16. (D 804.15 .D56 v.4) [Find in a library near you]
    Provides the text of an interview with eminent historian Raul Hilberg about the causes and effects of Kristallnacht. Part of a special issue of Dimensions with essays and personal testimonies marking the 50th anniversary of the event.
  • Lookstein, Haskel. “Kristallnacht.” In Were We Our Brothers’ Keepers? The Public Response of American Jews to the Holocaust, 35-80. New York: Hartmore House, 1985. (E 184.354 .L76 1985) [Find in a library near you]
    Chronicles the responses of American Jewish leaders to news of Kristallnacht. Reviews coverage in mainstream newspapers and the Jewish press, public protests against the Nazi violence, and other public and private responses. Offers an evaluation of the response by Jewish community leaders to the threat of Nazism.
  • McKale, Donald. “A Case of Nazi ‘Justice’: The Punishment of Party Members Involved in the Kristallnacht, 1938.” Jewish Social Studies 35 (1973): 228-238. (DS 101 .J555 v.35) [Find in a library near you]
    Analyzes the punishment of certain members of the Nazi party for their actions during Kristallnacht, including those who committed rape (“racial pollution”) and those who destroyed property that had to be paid for by “Aryan” insurance companies. Discusses how these court cases reflected and enforced Nazi racial ideology.
  • Obenaus, Herbert. “The Germans: ‘An Antisemitic People’: The Press Campaign After 9 November 1938.” In Probing the Depths of German Antisemitism: German Society and the Persecution of the Jews, 1933-1941, edited by David Bankier, 147-180. New York: Berghahn Books, 2000. (DS 146 .G4 P75 2000) [Find in a library near you]
    Traces the efforts of the Nazi Propaganda Ministry, under the direction of Joseph Goebbels, to capitalize on the anti-Jewish sentiment of Kristallnacht by orchestrating a campaign of antisemitic rhetoric in German newspapers and other news outlets.
  • Stoltzfus, Nathan. “Kristallnacht: Intermarriages and the Lessons of Pogrom.” In Resistance of the Heart: Intermarriage and the Rosenstrasse Protest in Nazi Germany, 98-111. New York: W.W. Norton, 1996. (DS 135 .G4 B476 1996) [Find in a library near you]
    Summarizes the protests raised by non-Jewish partners of victimized Jews in Berlin after Kristallnacht with special consideration of the effects of Nazi intermarriage policies on those in mixed-marriages.
  • Strauss, Herbert A. “The Drive for War and the Pogroms of 1938: Testing Explanatory Models.” Leo Baeck Institute Year Book 35 (1990): 267-278. (DS 135 .G3 A262 v.35) [Find in a library near you]
    Summarizes the events of Kristallnacht and explores its role in the overall Nazi domestic and economic policies towards Jews. Also discusses how preparations for war helped shift Nazi policies from antisemitic policies to violent actions.
  • Volkov, Shulamit. “The ‘Kristallnacht’ in Context: A View from Palestine.” Leo Baeck Institute Year Book 35 (1990): 279-296. (DS 135 .G3 A262 v.35) [Find in a library near you]
    Reviews the coverage of Kristallnacht in the Palestine press, revealing that for many Jews the violence of that night was viewed as part of worldwide anti-Jewish sentiment and not representative of a unique threat to German or European Jews.

Film and Video

  • Chafer, Peter, director. Kristallnacht, The Journey from 1938 to 1988 [videorecording]. Alexandria, VA: PBS Video, 1988. (Video Collection) [Find in a library near you]
    Television program commemorating the 50th anniversary of Kristallnacht. Examines the lives of Jews currently living in Berlin and Vienna and documents the efforts of Germans and Austrians to deal with the Nazi past.
  • Pelzer, Chris, director. More Than Broken Glass: Memories of Kristallnacht [videorecording]. Teaneck, NJ: Ergo Media, Inc., 1989. (Video Collection) [Find in a library near you]
    Uses interviews with survivors and witnesses to Kristallnacht to provide a thorough account of the events that transpired.

Museum Web Resources

  • Museum of Tolerance Online Guide: Kristallnacht
    Collects resources for learning more about Kristallnacht, including a fact sheet, documents, and eyewitness accounts. Maintained by the Museum of Tolarance at the Simon Wiesenthal Center in Los Angeles, CA.
  • Synagogues in Germany – A Virtual Reconstruction
    Documents the efforts of computer scientists at the Technical University of Darmstadt to create “virtual reconstructions” of synagogues destroyed on Kristallnacht. Includes dozens of computer-generated images of how the synagogues are believed to have appeared before November 1938.
  • USC Shoah Foundation Institute for Visual History and Education Testimonies
    (Available in the Museum Library)
    Provides hundreds of oral histories in several languages describing personal experiences of Holocaust survivors during Kristallnacht. For more information about this collection, go to
  • USHMM Steven Spielberg Film and Video Archive: Kristallnacht
    Presents archival film footage related to Kristallnacht held by the Steven Spielberg Film and Video Archive at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  • USHMM Special Focus: Kristallnacht
    Online portal to Museum Web pages about Kristallnacht. Includes links to a special online exhibit, articles, and other Web sites.


Please click on above image to enlarge. 

The Jewish Federation of Eastern Connecticut shall commemorate the 75th Anniversary of Kristallnacht – The Night of Broken Glass – at 4 p.m., Sunday, November 10, 2013, at Connecticut College in Evans Hall at the Cummings Art Center, New London, CT.

Jerry Fischer, Director of the Jewish Federation of Eastern Connecticut and Gaby Schlesinger, Chair of the Kristallnacht Committee, expressed the importance of educating every new generation about the crimes and terror perpetrated against the Jewish communities of Germany and Austria during the pogrom of November 9 and 10, 1938.

It is imperative that we honor those who suffered and died, and that we never forget that dark night in which the leadership of Nazi Germany ordered the violent radicalization of its anti-Jewish policy.  The pogrom was planned by the Nazi leadership, implemented by Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels, and managed by Reichsmarschall Hermann Goering and SS Commander Reinhard Heydrich.  Police and firefighters were ordered to stand aside as mobs of Germans murdered 91 Jews, burned and destroyed more than 1,400 synagogues, vandalized, pillaged and destroyed over 7,500 Jewish businesses, and arrested 30,000 Jews who were sent to concentration camps.  In the weeks that followed the Jewish victims were ordered to pay  $400 million for damages they suffered, and Goering ordered the confiscation of all insurance compensations paid them.

Thus began the onset of the Holocaust.


7_waKristallnacht Arrests

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The mission of this site is to inform the public about the commemoration of the 75th Anniversary of Kristallnacht – The Night of Broken Glass – on Sunday, November 10, 2013 in New London, Connecticut.  The pogrom known as Kristallnacht perpetrated against the Jews of Germany and Austria on November 9 and 10, 1938 initiated the onset of the Holocaust.  That night transformed the policies of anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany from prejudice, ignorance, discrimination and harassment to criminal conduct that included theft, vandalism, wrongful imprisonment in concentration camps, torture, and murder.  It was a night that brought ordinary people to evil.

The late Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel, a scholar at the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York, wrote, “Both Adam and the beasts were blessed by the Lord, but man was also charged with conquering the earth and dominating the beast.  Man is always faced with the choice of listening either to God or to the snake.”  Rabbi Heschel understood that the choice is for each of us alone to make; however, he adds, “Being created implies being born in value, being endowed with meaning, receiving value.  Living involves acceptance of meaning, obedience, and commitment.  A person is responsible for what he is, not only for what he does.”

Primo Levi, the brilliant Jewish-Italian chemist and writer who survived Auschwitz, offered an insightful response to an inquirer who wanted to understand why the Holocaust happened, why the death camps were built, why some survived and others did not survive, and why Hitler and Germans hated Jews and wished them dead: “One cannot say that each turn follows from a single why:  simplifications are proper only for textbooks; the whys can be many, entangled with one another or unknowable, if not actually nonexistent.”  His answer reflected an intellectual response that protected a part of himself he dared not explore, but the same man, perhaps in a less protective moment, also wrote:  ”Anyone who has been tortured remains tortured.  Anyone who has suffered torture never again will be able to be at ease in the world, the abomination of the annihilation is never extinguished. Faith in humanity, already cracked by the first slap in the face, then demolished by torture, is never acquired again.”

The Night of Broken Glass – Kristallnacht – was the first slap in the face of the Jewish communities of Germany and Austria, and it would spread like a pernicious and contagious plague throughout Europe.  That slap would lead to unimaginable torture and murder for over six-million Jews.  One must ask:  How can faith in humanity ever be restored for those who lost so many loved ones in the Holocaust?  Perhaps Rabbi Heschel has part of the answer:  we must not only act in good ways, but we must be good; we must love and not hate; we must give value and not take value; we must embrace the Torah so that we may embrace our brothers and sisters; and, we must choose God over the snake.  That is a beginning, and remembering those whom we know suffered unjustly is a meaningful path upon which we sensitize ourselves to the sorrows of others and find within ourselves that Divine spark which leads to a newfound enlightenment.


Dr. Romana Primus. President, Jewish Federation of Eastern Connecticut.

Mr. Jerry Fischer, Director of the Jewish Federation of Eastern Connecticut.

Dr. Gaby Schlesinger, Chair of the Kristallnacht Committee.

Dr. David Romei, Committee Member, Public Outreach/Internet.

Rabbi Aaron Rosenberg. Member.

Henny Simon.  Member

Marty Rutchik.  Member

Roz Etra.  Member

Rosa Goldblatt.  member

Nickie Padilla.  Member

Rachel Sheriff.  Member

Tracy Todd. Member